The per kilometer cost of constructing traditional coal-tar road as well as cement concrete road is not fixed under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). It varies from State to State or within the State depending upon the type of soil, rainfall and temperature variations and also traffic and environmental conditions existing in the location of the proposed road.
Bituminous roads require regular routine maintenance and periodic maintenance normally at 5 year interval. These are designed for 10 year design life as per Indian Road Congress (IRC) Standards. Cement Concrete roads require only routine maintenance and these are generally designed for 20 year design life as per Indian Road Congress (IRC) Standards. However, the maintenance cost of Cement concrete roads is less compared to that of tar roads.
Cost of construction of cement concrete roads with conventional method is normally 30-50% more than the cost of conventional Bituminous road. New Techniques like Cement Concrete roads with Cell filled concrete are being taken up on Pilot basis. Therefore, the cost and performance of Cement Concrete roads with new technique is yet to be established.
Bituminous roads have lower initial cost compared to cement concrete roads but require both periodic and routine maintenance. Cement Concrete roads also require routine maintenance but the cost of maintenance is lower compared to bituminous roads. As per available information, reports on specific studies undertaken to assess fuel efficiency of different type of rural roads in India are not available.